Agreeableness
Craving
Alcohol
Cigarette
Cocaine
Food
Gambling
Opiate
Depression
Bipolar
Unipolar
Extroversion
Learning
Neuroticism
Anxiety
Obsessive-Compulsive
Openness
Pain
Schizophrenia
Sexuality
 
Introduction
The Gene Pool Metaphor
Criminal Genes and The Law
 
 

 

 

Extroversion

dopamine receptor, subtype 4 (DR4) [HGL]
    The promoter of the dopamine receptor, subtype 4 (DR4), has a polymorphic insertion giving rise to a "short" and "long" form.  Infants having that the short DR4 polymorphism were less responsive to stimuli and showed more distress during daily routines, traits indicative of shyness and anxiety.  These infants also possessed the short copy of the 5-HTT gene which some studies have associated with anxiety.  See, entry for 5-HTT under Neuroticism.  Auerbach et al., Molecular Psychiatry, 4:369-373, July 1999.  See, also entry for DR4 under Openness (Novelty-Seeking).

serotonin transporter (5-HTT or SERT) [HGL]
    A common 44-base pair polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is associated with affective illness and anxiety disorders.  The polymorphism has been designated long (L) and short (S), depending on whether the insertion is present or absent in the promoter region.  See, entry for 5-HTT under Neuroticism.  The S allele is less active than the L allele.  Infants having that the S allele were less responsive to stimuli and showed more distress during daily routines, traits indicative of shyness and anxiety.  These infants also possessed a polymorphism in the dopamine receptor.  See entry for DR4 under Extroversion.  Auerbach et al., Molecular Psychiatry, 4:369-373, July 1999.