Agreeableness
Craving
Alcohol
Cigarette
Cocaine
Food
Gambling
Opiate
Depression
Bipolar
Unipolar
Extroversion
Learning
Neuroticism
Anxiety
Obsessive-Compulsive
Openness
Pain
Schizophrenia
Sexuality
 
Introduction
The Gene Pool Metaphor
Criminal Genes and The Law
 
 

 

 

Depression

bipolar disorder, manic depression
dopamine receptor, subtype 1 (DR1)* [HGL]
    Several polymorphisms in the DR1 dopamine receptor at 5q35.1 were analyzed in several families which display an apparently inherited form of manic depression.  No association with any of the polymorphic markers were observed to segregate with family members afflicted with the disease.  Jensen et al.,  Hum. Hered., 42:269-275, 1992.

dopamine receptor, subtype 2 (DR2)* [HGL]
    No association with a gene polymorphism.  Kanba et al., J. Affect. Disorders, 40:7-13, 1996.  Serretti and Enrico, Am. J. Med. Genet., 88:294-297, 1999.

dopamine receptor, subtype 3 (DR3)* [HGL]
    No association with a gene polymorphism.  Kanba et al., J. Affect. Disorders, 40:7-13, 1996.

dopamine receptor, subtype 4 (DR4)+ [HGL]
    A significant association between a polymorphism in the DR4 dopamine receptor and major depression, including unipolar and bipolar disorders.  Kanba et al., J. Affect. Disorders, 40:7-13, 1996.  No association between a  polymorphism in the third cytoplasmic loop of  DR4 and bipolar disorder was reported.  Lim et al., Am J. Med. Genet., 54:259-263, 1994.

dopamine transporter* [HGL]
    No association with a gene polymorphism.  Kanba et al., J. Affect. Disorders, 40:7-13, 1996.

GABA(A) receptor, subunit alpha-5 [HGL]
    An allelic polymorphism in the GABA(A) receptor alpha-5 subunit was associated with a patients who had a predominance of manic over depressive episodes in the course of the illness.  Papadimitriou et al., Am. J. Med. Genet., 81(1):73-80, 1998.

G-protein alpha subunit gene Galphaz (GNAZ) [HGL]
    A silent polymorphism was identified in exon 2 of the human G-protein alpha subunit gene Galphaz (GNAZ).  The frequency of the polymorphism was determined in a control population and in patients with bipolar mood disorder.  The data showed a statistical trend toward a difference in the distribution of the two alleles in patients with bipolar disease as compared to the control subjects.  This data supports earlier studies showing of a bipolar gene on chromosome 22q11, the locus of the GNAZ gene.  Takuya et al., Am. J. Med. Genet., 88:324-328, 1999.

serotonin receptor, subtype 2A (5-HT2A)* [HGL]
    Six polymorphisms (two structural changes, Thr25Asn and His4 M52Tyr; two silent polymorphisms, 102-T/c and 516-C/T) in the 5-HT2A receptor were studied in subjects with bipolar affective disorder.  No association was between any of the  polymorphisms and bipolar affective disorder.  Arranz et al., Neurosci. Lett., 224:95-98, 1997.  For similar results, Gutierrez et al., Hum. Genet., 100:582-584, 1997.

serotonin receptor, subtype 2C (5-HT2C) [HGL]
    A structural variant for the 5-HT2C receptor has been identified in which a cysteine at position 23 is replaced by a serine (ser23).  This variant was analyzed for allelic association with bipolar disorder.  A small, but significant, increase in frequency of the ser23 allele was observed in female subjects with bipolar affective disorder as compared to female controls, suggesting that the ser23 allele may increase susceptibility to bipolar disease in women.

serotonin transporter (5HTT or SERT)+ [HGL]
    A VNTR in intron 2 of the SERT gene was studied for association with bipolar affective disorder, unipolar depression, and schizophrenia.  There was a significant increase in frequency of allele 12 of the VNTR in subjects with bipolar affective disorder, but not unipolar depression or schizophrenia.  Collier et al., Neuroreport, 7:1675-1769, 1996.  Another study failed to find a correlation between two polymorphisms (a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 and a deletion/insertion polymorphism in the transcriptional control region) in SERT and manic depression.  Gutierrez et al., Biol. Psychiatry, 43:843-847, 1998.

delusional symptomatology
dopamine receptor, subtype 4 (DR4) [HGL]
    A polymorphism in the third exon of DR4 was associated with delusional symptomatology in subjects with major depressive mood disorders.  Serretti et al., Psychiatry Res., 80:129-136, 1998.

 

unipolar depression, major depression
dopamine receptor, subtype 2 (DR2)+ [HGL]
    A significantly increased incidence of migraine with aura (MWA), major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks, and phobia was observed in individuals with a DR2 allele NcoI C/C genotype compared with individuals with a DR2 NcoI T allele.  Peroutka et al., Mol. Med., 4:14-21, 1998.  No association with a gene polymorphism.  Kanba et al., J. Affect. Disorders, 40:7-13, 1996.

dopamine receptor, subtype 3 (DR3)+ [HGL]
    An association between between a BalI polymorphism in the DR3 gene (Gly-9 allele or allele '2') and unipolar depression was observed in patients with unipolar, major depression.  Dikeos et al., Psychiatr. Genet., 9:189-195, 1999.  No association with a gene polymorphism.  Kanba et al., J. Affect. Disorders, 40:7-13, 1996.

dopamine receptor, subtype 4 (DR4) [HGL]
    A significant association between a polymorphism in the DR4 dopamine receptor and major depression, including unipolar and bipolar disorders.  Kanba et al., J. Affect. Disorders, 40:7-13, 1996.

dopamine transporter* [HGL]
    No association with a gene polymorphism.  Kanba et al., J. Affect. Disorders, 40:7-13, 1996.

serotonin receptor, subtype 2A (5-HT2A) [HGL]
    Brains of depressed suicide victims had an overabundance of serotonin receptors, subtype 2A (5-HT2A).  This finding was also observed in platelet 5-HT2A receptors of patients who had persistent suicidal fantasies.  A polymorphism in the 5-HT2A receptor (102C and 102T alleles) was studied in these patients.  There was a significant association between the 102C allele in 5-HT2A receptor gene and major depression.  Patients who had both copies, the 102C/C genotype, had a higher score for suicide ideation than patients with the T/C or T/T genotype.  These results suggest that the 102T/C polymorphism in 5-HT2A receptor gene is primarily associated with suicidal ideation in patients with major depression.  Du et al., Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:56-60, 2000.

serotonin transporter (5-HTT or SERT)* [HGL]
    No association with a VNTR polymorphism. Collier et al., Neuroreport, 7:1675-1769, 1996.